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Spain - Brief Version

Citation: TvT research project (2010). “Country Results: Spain - Brief Version”.“Transrespect versus Transphobia Worldwide” (TvT). Project website: http://www.transrespect-transphobia.org/en/countries/spain-1.htm

 

Date of information: January 2010

In this section, we have provided an overview with very brief summaries of the pertinent facts, for use as a quick information resource. For more detailed and elaborate information, please see the section “Elaborated Version”.

 

General Country Information

Recent Developments

Legal Situation

Social Situation

Trans Murder Monitoring results

Official statements

Recommendations

Sources

Acknowledgements

 

General Country Information

Name of State: Spain

Area: 504.782 km2

Population: 43.397.000

Government: Parliamentary Monarchy

Capital: Madrid

Official Language: Spanish. Aranese, Catalonian (Balearic, Valencian), Basque and Galician are official languages in the corresponding autonomous communities.

Memberships: Spain is a member state of the European Union (EU), the Council of Europe (CoE), the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and the United Nations (UN).

Remarks: Franco dictatorship from 1939 - 1975.

Source: Cheers and Olds (2008: 252-253).


 

Recent Developments

 

2009: Approval of anti-discrimination legislation in the autonomous community of Navarra (Ley Foral 12/2009, de no discriminación por motivos de identidad de género y de reconocimiento  del derecho de las personas transexuales).

2008: Spanish Government supports the Declaration of "Human Rights, Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity" presented in the UN General Assembly.

2008: Proposal for modification of the current Gender Identity Law (Ley 3/2007).

2008: Anti-Discrimination Plan, Catalonian Government (Plan interdepartamental para la no discriminación de las personas homosexuales y transexuales, Generalitat de Catalunya).

 

Date of information: January 2010

For more detailed and extensive information, please see the section “Elaborated Version” (coming soon).

 

 

Legal Situation

 

Constitution:


GENDER IDENTITY IN CONSTITUTION


Constitution:

Explicit mention of gender identity: no, subsumed under "sex".                  
Constitución Española (1978)

Source: Transrespect versus Transphobia Worldwide research project

 

Gender Recognition Legislation:


GENDER RECOGNITION LEGISLATION


Legislation:

Possibility of name and sex registry change: yes.

Gender Recognition Law (Ley 3/2007, del 15 de marzo, reguladora de la rectificación registral de la mención relativa al sexo de las personas).

Date: 2007
Proceedings:

In the Civil Registry (Registro Civil).

Requirements:

Of legal age; Spanish nationality; diagnosis of gender dysphoria issued by a physician or clinical psychologist who is a member of the professional association in Spain or holder of a recognized title; absence of personality disorders; two years of medical treatment, accredited by the physician, member of the professional association in Spain, under whose direction the treatment had been realized, or by a forensic specialist.

Gender reassignment surgery is not required.

Privacy Protection:

Yes (Art. 7, Ley 3/2007).

Marriage

Modification of marriage status is not required, due to the existence of Law 13/2005 (Ley 13/2005, de 1 de julio, por la que se modifica el Código Civil en materia de derecho a contraer matrimonio), which allows marriage in independence of the registered sex.

Source:

Transrespect versus Transphobia Worldwide research project

 

Anti-Discrimination Legislation:


ANTI-DISCRIMINATION LEGISLATION



Legislation:

On the state level: no.
On the regional level: yes, in the autonomous community of Navarra.

Law Foral 12/2009, de no discriminación por motivos de identidad de género y de reconocimiento del derecho de las personas transexuales.

Date: 2009
Other measures:

Anti-Discrimination Plan, autonomous community of Catalonia.

Plan interdepartamental para la no discriminación de las personas homosexuales y transexuales (Generalitat de Catalunya 2008).

Date: 2008
Actual Proposals and Initiatives:

Andalusia (November 2009): Approval to admit the law proposal "Proposición No de Ley relativa a la no discriminación por motivos de identidad de género y de reconocimiento de los derechos de las personas transexuales" (initiative of the Socialist Parliamentarian Group) to legal procedures.

Canaries (January 2010): Presentation of the law proposal "Propuesta de ley de no discriminación por motivos de identidad de género y de reconocimiento de los derechos de las personas transexuales" to the Parlamentarian Groups of Canaries (initiative of the Coordination Committee LGBT Canaries).

Source:
Transrespect versus Transphobia Worldwide research project

 

Hate Crime Legislation:


Hate Crime Legislation                                                                                        


Legislation:

Explicit mention of gender identity in the corresponding legislation: no, only "sex" and "sexual orientation".
Ley Orgánica 10/1995, de 23 de noviembre, del Código Penal, Art. 22

Actual Proposals and Initiatives:

Report of the Basque Obudsman (Ararteko de Euskadi): "La situación de las personas transgénero y transexuales en Euskadi" (Institución del Ararteko 2009): Recommendation to include discrimination on the grounds of gender identity as an aggravating cirumstance.

Law proposal of Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya, 2009: Proposal of hate crime classification in which gender identity is explicitly mentioned.

Source:

Transrespect versus Transphobia Worldwide research project


 

Anti-Discrimination Regulation in the Penitentiary Context


anti-discrimination regulation in the penitentiary context 
 

Legislation:

Explicit mention of gender identity in the corresponding regulation: yes.
Instrucción 7/2006, de la Dirección de Instituciones Penitenciarias, del 9 de marzo, sobre integración penitenciaria de personas transexuales.

Date:

2006

Source:

Transrespect versus Transphobia Worldwide research project

 

Asylum Legislation


asylum legislation


Legislation:

Explicit mention of gender identity in the Asylum Law: no, subsumed under "gender".
Ley 11/2009, de 30 de octubre, reguladora del derecho de asilo y de la protección subsidaria.

Source:

Transrespect versus Transphobia Worldwide research project

Date of information: January 2010

 

For more detailed and extensive information, please see the section “Elaborated Version” (coming soon).

 

 

 

Social Situation

 

Health Care

 

AVAILABLE FORMS OF GENDER REASSIGNEMENT THERAPY

HORMONE THERAPY

MASTECTOMY

HYSTERECTOMY

VAGINOPLASTY

PHALLOPLASTY

METOIDIOPLASTY

BREAST AUGMENTATION

HAIR REMOVAL (PHOTODEPILATION, ELECTROLYSIS)

FACIAL SURGERIES

CHONDROLARYNGOPLASTY

 


PUBLIC COVERAGE and organization OF GENDER REASSIGNMENT THERAPY


National Public Coverage:

On the state level, by the National Public Health System: no.
Real Decreto 63/1995, de 20 de enero, sobre ordenación de prestaciones sanitarias del Sistema Nacional de Salud.
Regional Public Coverage:

On the regional level, by the Public Health Systems of the following autonomous communities:

  • Andalusia
  • Aragon
  • Asturias
  • Autonomous Community of Madrid
  • Autonomous Community of Valencia
  • Basque Country
  • Canaries
  • Catalonia
  • Comunitat Valenciana
  • Extremadura
Organization of Gender Reassignment Therapy:

In "Gender Identity Disorders Units" ("Unidades de Trastornos de Identidad de Género").

In Aragon and in the Autonomous Community of Valencia: in different health centers.

In Extremadura: referral to other autonomous communities.

Interventions covered by the Regional Public Health Systems:
  • Hormone Therapy
  • Mastectomy
  • Hysterectomy
  • Vaginoplasty
  • Phalloplasty
  • Metoidioplasty

(not all Units have surgery services).

Public Coverage of Treatments performed in Private Health Centers

On state level: no.

On the regional level: Subsidies for trans perons in the Basque Country, abolished 2009 (Ayudas dirigidas a las personas transexuales, Gobierno Vasco 2007).

Source: Transrespect versus Transphobia Worldwide research project

 

 

 

Date of information: January 2010

For more detailed and extensive information, please see the section “Elaborated Version” (coming soon).

 

 

 

 

 

 

Trans Murder Monitoring results

 

The Trans Murder Monitoring project has found two reported homicides of trans persons in 2009:
1. cristina "Smail" L.valencia


Name: Cristina "Smail" L.
Age: 36
Date of Death: March 24th 2009
Location of Death: Valencia (Spain)
Cause of Death: Beaten to death
Remarks:

Victim was of Moroccan descent. The burned body was found in Aldaia. The autopsy revealed that the death had occured in a different place 48 hours before, that fatal injury was inflicted by a blunt object, and that the body was moved later to Aldaia and burned on a dirt track behind the cementery.

Follow-up:

According to court sources, three men were arrested in August 2009 on suspicion of the homicide of Cristina L. The magistrate of Torrent let the three accused men out on conitional bail.

Sources:

Transrespect versus Transphobia Worldwide research project:

ABC 25.03.2009 & Las Provincias 26.03.2009, Levante-emv 26.03.2009

Follow-up: SentidoG 08.09.2009, Jeresgay.org 10.09.2009

2. Linsia C.C.Burgos


Name: Linsia C.C.
Age: Approx. 40
Date of Death: 3-4 days befor October 8th 2009 (the body was found on October 8th in a state of advanced decomposition).
Location of Death: Burgos (Spain)
Cause of Death: Strangled, with stabbing injuries
Remarks:

Sex worker, migrant (of Colombian descent). An acquaintance of the victim was not able to reach the victim by phone and called the police.

Follow-up:

The police research, conducted by the Brigada Provincial de la Policia Judicial of Burgos, indicates that the likely perpetrator is an inmate of the prison of Pamplona, arrested at the end of October for aggravated robbery together with three others, who are presumed to have also been involved in the crime. Robbery is the supposed motive for the murder. The LGBT groups demand that transphobia be considered an aggravating circumstance in the case.

Sources:

Transrespect versus Transphobia Worldwide research project:

El Mundo, 08.09.2009

Follow-up: Noticias Navarra 29.10.2009

The Trans Murder Monitoring project has found one reported homicide of a trans person in 2008:
1. rosa pazossevilla


Name: Rosa Pazos
Age: 47
Date of Death: July 11th 2008
Location of Death: Sevilla (Spain), own apartment
Cause of Death: Stabbed to death
Remarks:

Stabbed in the thorax.

Follow-up:

The autopsy revealed that the death was caused by stab wounds in the thorax, although this conclusion was later questioned. In October 2008, the homicide case was shelved because no indications of a fight or robbery could be found. It was concluded that the lung perforation could have been caused by an old pleural drainage and not by a stab wound.

Sources:

Transrespect versus Transphobia Worldwide research project:

http://trans.ilga.org

www.transgenderdor.org

http://tgdor.org

Follow-up: Diario de Sevilla 07.10.2008

Date of information: January 2010

For a general surview and more information see the section "Monitoring TMM”.

More information will be provided after the analysis of the TvT questionnaire results and other research data has been concluded.

 

 

Official statements regarding Gender Identity and Human Rights

 

2008: The Spanish Government supports the Declaration of "Human Rights, Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity", presented in the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN 2008).

2006: Support at the UN Human Rights Council for the joint Declaration condemning human rights violations on grounds of sexual orientation or gender identity (Norway - Geneva 2006).

1989: Support for the Recommendation 1117 / 1989 on the condition of transsexuals, which recommends that the member states of the Council of Europe create legislation regulating the registration of change of name and sex, privacy protection, and the prohibition of discrimination (Parliamentary Assembly CoE 1989).

1989: Support for the Resolution on discrimination against transsexuals (European Parliament 1989).

Date of information: January 2010

 

For more detailed and extensive information, please see the section “Elaborated Version” (coming soon).

 

 

Recommendations

 

Recommendations of the Issue Paper "Human Rights and Gender Identity" of the Commissioner of Human Rights of the Council of Europe:

Member states of the Council fo Europe should:

1. Implement international human rights standards without discrimination, and prohibit explicitly discrimination on the ground of gender identity in national non-discrimination legislation. The Yogyakarta Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law in relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity should be used to provide guidance for national implementation in this field. (…)

4. Abolish sterilisation and other compulsory medical treatment as a necessary legal requirement to recognise a person’s gender identity in laws regulating the process for name and sex change.

5. Make gender reassignment procedures, such as hormone treatment, surgery and psychological support, accessible for transgender persons, and ensure that they are reimbursed by public health insurance schemes. (…)

7. Prepare and implement policies to combat discrimination and exclusion faced by transgender persons on the labour market, in education and health care.

8. Involve and consult transgender persons and their organisations when developing and implementing policy and legal measures which concern them.

(Hammarberg 2009: 43-44).

 

Date of information: January 2010

 

For more detailed and extensive information, please see the section “Elaborated Version” (coming soon).

 

 

 

Sources

Law Texts

Aprobación de la Proposición no de Ley, relativa a la inclusión en el Servicio Andaluz de Salud del proceso de reasignación de sexo de las personas transexuales y medidas de acompañamiento para la normalización social de las mismas, en sesión del pleno de 10 y 11 de febrero de 1999, BOPA Boletín Oficial del Parlamento de Andalucía, 09.03.1999  http://www.parlamentodeandalucia.es/webdinamica/portal-web-parlamento/pdf.do?tipodoc=bopa&id=5231 (January 2010).

Constitución Española, approved 31.10.1978, ratified by referendum 06.12.1978. http://www.la-moncloa.es/NR/rdonlyres/79FF2885-8DFA-4348-8450-04610A9267F0/0/constitucion_ES.pdf (January 2010).

Instrucción 7/2006 de la Dirección General de Instituciones Penitenciarias, del 9 de marzo, sobre integración penitenciaria de personas transexuales. www.mir.es/INSTPEN/INSTPENI/rchivos/i-7-transexuales.pdf (January 2010).

Ley 3/2007, de 15 de marzo, reguladora de la rectificación registral de la mención relativa al sexo de las personas. Boletín Oficial del Estado, BOE Nº 65, 16.03.2007. http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2007/03/16/pdfs/A11251-11253.pdf (January 2010).

Ley 5/1984, de 26 de marzo, reguladora del derecho de asilo y de la condición de refugiado (abolished). http://noticias.juridicas.com/base_datos/Derogadas/r1-l5-1984.html (January 2010).

Ley 12/2009, de 30 de octubre, reguladora del derecho de asilo y de la protección subsidiaria. Boletín Oficial del Estado, BOE Nº 26, 31.10.2010. http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2009/10/31/pdfs/BOE-A-2009-17242.pdf (January 2010).

Ley 13/2005, de 1 de julio, por la que se modifica el Código Civil en materia de derecho a contraer matrimonio. Boletín Oficial del Estado, BOE Nº 157, 02.07.2005. http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2005/07/02/pdfs/A23632-23634.pdf (January 2010).

Ley Foral 12/2009, de 19 de noviembre, de no discriminación por motivos de identidad de género y de reconocimiento del derecho de las personas transexuales. http://www.derecho.com/l/bon/ley-foral-12-2009-discriminacion-motivos-identidad-genero-reconocimiento-derechos-personas-transexuales/ (January 2010).

Ley Orgánica 8/1983, de 25 de junio, de Reforma Urgente y Parcial del Código Penal. Boletín Oficial del Estado, BOE Nº 152, 27.06.1983. http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/1983/06/27/pdfs/A17909-17919.pdf (January 2010).

Ley Orgánica 10/1995, de 23 de noviembre, del Código Penal. Boletín Oficial del Estado, BOE, Nº 281, 24.11.1995. http://www.boe.es/aeboe/consultas/bases_datos/doc.php?coleccion=iberlex&id=1995/25444 (January 2010).

Real Decreto 63/1995, de 20 de enero, sobre ordenación de prestaciones sanitarias del Sistema Nacional de Salud. Boletín Oficial del Estado, BOE Nº 35, 10.02.1995. http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/1995/02/10/pdfs/A04538-04543.pdf (January 2010).

Real Decreto 1030 / 2006, de 15 de septiembre, por el que se establece la cartera de servicios comunes del Sistema Nacional de Salud y el procedimiento para su actualización. Boletín Oficial del Estado, BOE Nº 222, 16.09.2006, http://www.boe.es/boe/dias/2006/09/16/pdfs/A32650-32679.pdf (January 2010).

 

Law Proposals

EAJ-PNV (2008). Proposición no de Ley presentada por el Grupo Parlamentario Vasco (EAJ-PNV), sobre modificación de requisitos contenidos en la Ley 3/2007, de 15 de marzo, reguladora de la rectificación registral de la mención relativa al sexo de las personas transexuales. Boletín Oficial de las Cortes Generales. Congreso de los Diputados IX Legislatura, Serie D, Nº43, 30.06.2008. http://www.senado.es/legis9/publicaciones/html/maestro/index_D_043.html (January 2010).

Proposición no de Ley relativa a la no discriminación por motivos de identidad de género y de reconocimiento de los derechos de las personas transexuales, BOPA, Boletín Oficial Parlamento de Andalucía, 06.11.2009. http://www.parlamentodeandalucia.es/webdinamica/portal-web-parlamento/pdf.do?tipodoc=bopa&id=42513 (January 2010).

  

International Declarations

European Parliament (1989): Resolution on discrimination against transsexuals, 12.09.1989. Official Journal of the European Communities, C 256, 09/10/1989.

Norway-Geneva (2006). “HRC 3rd session. Joint statement on Human Rights violations based on sexual orientation and gender identity”, 01.12.2006. http://www.norway-geneva.org/unitednations/humanrights/hrc011206/ (January 2010).

Parliamentary Assembly CoE (1989). Recommendation 1117 / 1989 on the condition of transsexuals. http://assembly.coe.int/main.asp?Link=/documents/adoptedtext/ta89/erec1117.htm (January 2010).

UN, General Assembly (2008). 70th and 71st Plenary Meeting. Morning Session. http://www.un.org/webcast/ga2008.html (January 2010).

 

Other Sources

Cheers, Gordon and Olds, Margaret (2008). Geographica - Weltatlas mit Länderlexikon. Tandem Verlag.

Consejo Interterritorial, Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo (2006). Criterios, acordados por el Consejo Interterritorial, que deben cumplir los CSUR para ser designados como de referencia del Sistema Nacional de Salud. http://www.msc.es/profesionales/CentrosDeReferencia/docs/↵
AtencionTransexualidad.pdf
(January 2010).

Generalitat de Catalunya (2008). Plan interdepartamental para la no discriminación de las personas homosexuales y transexuales. http://www.transexualia.org/DOCUMENTACION/plancat.pdf (January 2010).

Gobierno Vasco (2007). Ayudas dirigidas a las personas transexuales. http://www.ejgv.euskadi.net/r53-2291/es/contenidos/ayuda_subvencion/trans_2007/es_trans/trans_2007.html (January 2010).

Hammarberg, Thomas (2009). Human Rights and Gender Identity CommDH Issue paper July 2009. https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=1476365&Site=CommDH&BackColorInternet=FEC65B&BackColorIntranet=↵
FEC65B&BackColorLogged=FFC679
(January 2010).

Institución del Ararteko (2009). La situación de las personas transgénero y transexuales en Euskadi. Informe Extraordinario de la institución del Ararteko al Parlamento Vasco. http://www.ararteko.net/RecursosWeb/DOCUMENTOS/1/1_1719_3.pdf (January 2010).  

 

 

 

Acknowledgements

 

We would like to thank Kim Pérez, Juana Ramos and Pablo Vergara for the text revision and additional information.

 

 

A RESEARCH PROJECT BY

TGEU Transgender Europe