TRANS MURDER MONITORING
Trans Murder Monitoring Project
The Trans Murder Monitoring (TMM) project systematically monitors, collects and analyses reports of homicides of trans people worldwide.
The Trans Murder Monitoring project started in April 2009 as a cooperation between Transgender Europe (TGEU) and the academic online magazine Liminalis – A Journal for Sex/Gender Emancipation and Resistance. With the involvement of the editorial team of Liminalis, the TMM became a pilot project of Transgender Europe’s “Transrespect versus Transphobia Worldwide” research project in September 2009.
The preliminary results were published in July 2009 on the TGEU-website and in the 2009 issue of Liminalis. An update of these results was presented on the TGEU-website on the International Day of Trans Remembrance in November 2009.
Further updates of the results are being published on this website two to three times a year.
When using the data presented by the Trans Murder Monitoring project, please note that the data presented is not comprehensive, for the reasons outlined below, and can only provide a glimpse into a reality which is undoubtedly much worse than the numbers suggest:
1.) The collected data show only those cases which have been reported. There is no data and no estimates available for the unreported cases.
2.) The data presented here do not include all reported cases worldwide, but only those which can be found -- with some effort -- on the Internet. Reports from local newspapers that have no web presence are missing.
3.) Due to the dozens of languages used in the Internet, the variety of terms used to denote trans people, and the myriad numbers of web pages to search through, it is simply not possible to find all reports shown on the Internet.
4.) Finding reports of murdered trans persons in particular is also problematic, as not all trans people who are murdered are identified as trans.
Please also note that the Trans Murder Monitoring project reports all kinds of murders of trans people. The classification of the murder of a trans person as a hate crime is often difficult, due to a lack of information in the reports as well as the lack of national monitoring systems. Although the brutal violence and other circumstances in reported cases suggest that quite a lot of them -- even most or almost all cases -- are transphobic hate crimes (according to the TvT research project's classification) or crimes related to specific situations that trans people have to face in some countries (e.g., being forced to do sex work to earn one’s living due to discrimination in employment), in this first stage of presenting the results, they are classified simply as reports of murdered trans persons.
In the following discussion, the results of the Trans Murder Monitoring project are presented in form of reports, name lists, tables, and maps. The reports provide context information on the monitoring and reporting of murders of trans persons, and summarize the results. The name lists present the names and some details about the deaths of the otherwise anonymously reported trans murder victims. These lists are specially compiled for the annual International Transgender Day of Remembrance (see below). The tables present statistics on the world region, country, date of death, location and cause of death, and the age and profession of the victims. The maps illustrate the worldwide scale of the reports of murdered trans persons.
The tables and maps produced based on this research data prove, in vividly graphic form, that murders of trans people do occur in all six world regions.
As the TvT research team regularly updates and evaluates the TMM results, we present all results here in chronological order starting with the latest update.
Although the members of the TvT research team wish that such research was unnecessary (because no trans people were murdered), we would appreciate contributions of reports of murdered trans people, transphobic murders and transphobic violence in general from countries in the six world regions. Therefore, the TvT research team asks networks, organizations and individuals to send reports of murdered trans people to research[at]transrespect-transphobia.org and that they participate in this ongoing monitoring and research project, so that the necessary data can be gathered to improve the situation of trans people worldwide.
When reporting cases of murdered trans people, please provide as many details as possible, e.g., the name of the victim (using, if known, the chosen name of the victim), the victim’s age and profession, and, if known, the victim’s self-definition (e.g. travesti, transwoman, FTM, genderqueer, etc.) or the local/indigenous term (e.g. muxé, kathoey, etc.), the date (day, month, year) and the place (state, city/town, street/public place/home, etc.) where the murder took place, as well as the cause of death (e.g. gunshot, stabbing, strangulation, etc.) and the source of information. Furthermore, when possible, it would be very helpful if you could provide a context of the murder, as well as an indication of how the murder was treated judicially (investigation, classification as hate or bias crime, prosecution of the perpetrator, etc.).
If you wish to refer to this section, please use the following citation format: TvT research project (2012). Trans Murder Monitoring, “Transrespect versus Transphobia Worldwide” (TvT) project website: www.transrespect-transphobia.org/en/tvt-project/tmm-results.htm